CRITICAL UPDATE: Use new XMALab software for marker-based XROMM, and also for undistorting and calibrating biplanar X-ray setups.
XMALab replaces MATLAB XrayProject. See Bitbucket XMALab wiki for XMALab User Manual (not this wiki).
Note: there is a Table of Contents we recommend you use to navigate this xrommwiki. The links on this page are obsolete.
X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) is an
X-ray imaging and computational process that produces precise and accurate 3D movies of skeletal movement.
There are five steps in the marker-based XROMM workflow:
1) Implant radiopaque bone markers
2) Record biplanar x-ray videos of movement
- For Brown Users: Getting trained and certified to use x-ray machines and Operating C-arm x-ray machines during data collection
3) Analyze x-ray videos to extract XYZ coordinates of radiopaque markers
- Digitizing x-ray movies using the MATLAB XrayProject.mat procedure. (MATLAB scripts written and compiled by Ty Hedrick and Dave Baier.)
4) Create 3D polygonal bone surface models
5) Produce XROMM animations in Autodesk Maya
* FluoroCorrect: A Matlab package for undistorting videofluoroscopy sequences is available on SourceForge Documentation on the usage and development of this software package can be found here: Video Correction Documentation Some FluoroCorrect instructions are available.
At Brown University we have developed three main approaches to XROMM:
2) Scientific Rotoscoping workflow, i.e. manual markerless XROMM (Gatesy et al., 2010)
3) XROMM AutoScoper software, i.e. automated markerless XROMM (Miranda et al., 2011)
New: XROMM Undistorter, stand-alone undistortion program
We have also developed the X-ray Motion Analysis Portal (XMA Portal) for storing, viewing and managing X-ray movie data and associated metadata.
This wiki contains instructions and software downloads, contributed by many users. See www.xromm.org and the publications below for general information about XROMM.
Brainerd, E.L., D.B. Baier, S.M. Gatesy, T.L. Hedrick, K.A. Metzger, S.L. Gilbert, and J.J. Crisco. (2010) X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM): precision, accuracy and applications in comparative biomechanics research. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 313A: 262-279.
Miranda, D.L., Schwartz, J.B., Loomis, A.C., Brainerd, E.L., Fleming, B.C., Crisco, J.J. (2011) Static and Dynamic Error of a Biplanar Videoradiography System Using Marker-Based and Markerless Tracking Techniques. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133 (12): 1-8.
Knörlein, B.J., Baier, D.B., Gatesy, S.M., Laurence-Chasen, J.D. and Brainerd, E.L. 2016. Validation of XMALab software for marker-based XROMM. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219: 3701-3711. doi: 10.1242/jeb.145383.