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CRITICAL UPDATE: Use new XMALab software for marker-based XROMM, and also for undistorting and calibrating biplanar X-ray setups.

XMALab replaces MATLAB XrayProject. See Bitbucket XMALab wiki for XMALab User Manual (not this wiki). 

Note: there is a Table of Contents we recommend you use to navigate this xrommwiki. The links on this page are obsolete.


X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) is an


X-ray imaging and computational process that produces precise and accurate 3D movies of skeletal movement.


* Look Here for Recent Changes to XROMM wiki, MATLAB scripts, and Maya MEL scrips

There are seven steps in the marker-based XROMM workflow:

1) Implant radiopaque bone markers

2) Record biplanar x-ray videos of movement

3) Analyze x-ray videos to extract XYZ coordinates of radiopaque markers

4) Create 3D polygonal bone surface models

5) Measure XYZ coordinates of markers relative to polygonal bone models

6) Calculate rigid body kinematics from XYZ marker positions

7) Produce XROMM animations in Autodesk Maya

* Note: If you want to remove fluoroscope distortion from x-ray movies (i.e. undistort or correct the movies), use X-rayProject version 2 or later. We are no longer updating VideoCorrect or FluoroCorrect MATLAB programs. Undistorting a video is a two-step process: 1. Create an *UNDTFORM file and 2. Click Undistort Video in the X-rayProject window.

z_*OBSOLETE* Recent Changes and DOWNLOADS
Brown XROMM Short Courses


At Brown University we have developed three main approaches to XROMM:

1) Marker-based XROMM workflow (Brainerd et al., 2010)
2) Scientific Rotoscoping workflowi.e. manual markerless XROMM (Gatesy et al., 2010)
3) XROMM AutoScoper software, i.e. automated markerless XROMM (Miranda et al., 2011)
New: XROMM Undistorter, stand-alone undistortion program

We have also developed the X-ray Motion Analysis Portal (XMA Portal) for storing, viewing and managing X-ray movie data and associated metadata.

Resources for Keck Foundation XROMM Core Facility

This wiki contains instructions and software downloads, contributed by many users. See and the publications below for general information about XROMM. 

Brainerd, E.L., D.B. Baier, S.M. Gatesy, T.L. Hedrick, K.A. Metzger, S.L. Gilbert, and J.J. Crisco. (2010) X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM): precision, accuracy and applications in comparative biomechanics research. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 313A: 262-279.

Gatesy S.M., Baier D.B., Jenkins F.A., Dial K.P. (2010) Scientific rotoscoping: a morphology-based method of 3-D motion analysis and visualization. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 313A:244--261.

Miranda, D.L., Schwartz, J.B., Loomis, A.C., Brainerd, E.L., Fleming, B.C., Crisco, J.J. (2011) Static and Dynamic Error of a Biplanar Videoradiography System Using Marker-Based and Markerless Tracking Techniques. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133 (12): 1-8.

Knörlein, B.J., Baier, D.B., Gatesy, S.M., Laurence-Chasen, J.D. and Brainerd, E.L. 2016. Validation of XMALab software for marker-based XROMM. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219: 3701-3711. doi: 10.1242/jeb.145383.